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Geospatial Intelligence

Origins and Evolution
Table of
A riveting introduction to the complex and evolving field of geospatial intelligence. Although geospatial intelligence is a term of recent origin, its underpinnings have a long and interesting history. Geospatial Intelligence: Origins and Evolution shows how the current age of geospatial knowledge evolved from its ancient origins to become ubiquitous in daily life across the globe. Within that framework, the book weaves a tapestry of stories about the people, events, ideas, and technologies that affected the trajectory of what has become known as GEOINT. Author Robert M. Clark explores the historical background and subsequent influence of fields such as geography, cartography, remote sensing, photogrammetry, geopolitics, geophysics, and geographic information systems on GEOINT. Although its modern use began in national security communities, Clark shows how GEOINT has rapidly extended its reach to other government agencies, NGOs, and corporations. This global explosion in the use of geospatial intelligence has far-reaching implications not only for the scientific, academic, and commercial communities but for a society increasingly reliant upon emerging technologies. Drones, the Internet of things, and cellular devices transform how we gather information and how others can collect that information, to our benefit or detriment.
List of Illustrations Preface Prologue List of Abbreviations 1. Intelligence and Geospatial IntelligenceThe Boundaries of Intelligence Geospatial Terminology The Power of a Single Word Defining Geospatial Intelligence 2. A Brief History of Maps and ChartsMapping The Silk Road Cartography Photogrammetry Nautical Charts Aeronautical Charts Establishing Claims with Cartography Chapter Summary 3. TerrainMeasuring and Representing Terrain Digital Elevation Models Military Use of Terrain Civil Use of Terrain Oceanographic Terrain Chapter Summary 4. NavigationCelestial Navigation Radio Navigation Satellite Navigation Chapter Summary 5. GeopoliticsMahan's Sea Power Theory Mackinder's Heartland Theory German Geopolitik Spykman's Rimland Theory The Continuing Influence of Geopolitical Theories Thematic Cartography Geopolitical Strategy Chapter Summary 6. Geographic Information SystemsThe Cluttered Map Hard Copy Layers Roger Tomlinson, the Father of GIS The Harvard Connection ESRI and Intergraph Interactive Maps and Charts The GIS Choice: Raster or Vector? The Power of GIS The Explosion of GIS Applications Are Paper Maps Obsolete? GIS and GEOINT Chapter Summary 7. GeolocationGeolocation Basics Using Imagery Radiofrequency Geolocation Acoustic Geolocation Cyber Geolocation Chapter Summary 8. Gaining the High GroundGettysburg Observation Towers Lighter-than-Air Craft Exotic Approaches to the High Ground Aircraft Chapter Summary 9. The Ultimate High GroundRemote-Sensing Satellites Government Nonmilitary Applications Military Applications Commercial Imaging Satellites Chapter Summary 10. Visible Imaging Aerial Film Cameras Satellite Film Cameras Digital Cameras Video Cameras Getting the Image Right Analyzing the Image Chapter Summary 11. Spectral ImagingThe Infrared Bands The Ultraviolet Spectrum Imaging outside the Visible Band Spectral Imagers Chapter Summary 12. Radar ImagingConventional Radar Side-Looking Airborne Radar Synthetic Aperture Radar Laser Radar Chapter Summary 13. The Drivers of Geospatial IntelligenceDenial and Deception Fleeting Targets Precision and Accuracy Outside Expertise Characterizing Oceans and Ocean Traffic New Issues A Complete Picture Chapter Summary 14. The Tools of Geospatial IntelligenceGeomatics Geographic Information System Geovisualization Big Data Data Analytics and Visual Analytics Geospatial Simulation Modeling Chapter Summary 15. Sociocultural GEOINTSociocultural Factors in Conflict Resolution Activity-Based Intelligence Pattern-of-Life Analysis Volunteered Geographic Information Involuntary Geographic Information Chapter Summary 16. The Story of the National Geospatial-Intelligence AgencyThe Defense Mapping Agency The National Photographic Interpretation Center The National Imagery and Mapping Agency's Standup A Tale of Two Cities The Fight to Survive The NGA's Standup Reaching Out Establishing the Boundaries of GEOINT Chapter Summary 17. The GEOINT ExplosionUS Geospatial Intelligence Organizations Five Eyes GEOIN Other National GEOINT Organizations Transnational GEOINT Organizations Chapter Summary 18. Non-National Geospatial IntelligenceState/Provincial and Local Government Nongovernmental Organizations Chapter Summary 19. Commercial GEOINTGeospatial Business Intelligence Strategic GEOINT Operational GEOINT Geospatial Competitive Intelligence Chapter Summary 20. The Road AheadPredicting the Future The Future of Cartography The Tools Applications of GEOINT National-Level GEOINT The Challenge of Ubiquitous GEOINT Chapter Summary Glossary Selected Bibliography Index About the Author
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